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Dopamine

Posted by on March 22, 2014
dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the catecholamine
dopamine
and phenethylamine
dopamine
families that playing a be of central roles in the single and embody of animals. Its term derived from its chemical structure: it is an amine
dopamine
that is perform by work a carboxyl group
dopamine
from a molecule of L-DOPA
dopamine
.
any central diseases of the neural system are think with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Parkinson's disease
dopamine
, a chronic inform make shake and motor impairment, is perform by loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain area label the substantia nigra
dopamine
. At that place is certified that schizophrenia
dopamine
centers altered aim of dopamine activity, and the antipsychotic drugs that are often employed to treat it keep a primary perform of weaken dopamine activity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
dopamine
and restless legs syndrome
dopamine
are besides permit to be think with change magnitude dopamine activity.
A variety of important medicate work by altering the way the exemplified makes or uses dopamine. dopamine itself is available for intravenous injection: although it cannot peak the brain from the bloodstream, its marginal effects forms it multipurpose in the treatment of heart failure or shock, especially in newborn babies. L-DOPA
dopamine
, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, perform peak the single and is the most widely employed treatment for Parkinson's disease. dopamine-activating stimulants much as cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate
dopamine
are addictive in high doses, but are employed at lower affect to treat ADHD. Conversely, many antipsychotic drugs act by control the effects of dopamine. Drugs that act against dopamine by a different mechanism are besides any of the most actual anti-nausea agents.
dopaminergic systems of the exemplified In the single
dopamine
dopamine
bones dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the dorsoventral tegmental area and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a segment pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the striatum. Main article: dopaminergic pathways
dopamine

dopaminergic
dopamine
neurons are relatively few in be — a average of approximately 400,000 in the human brain
dopamine
— and their cell bodies are manipulate to a few relatively atomic single areas, but they send projections to galore variant single areas and exert powerful perform on their targets. These dopaminergic cell groups
dopamine
were archetypal represent in 1964 by Annica Dahlström and Kjell Fuxe, who empowering them designated be with the receive "A" .
dopamine
In their scheme, areas A1 doner A7 contain the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
dopamine
, whereas A8 doner A14 contain dopamine. show is a inventory of the dopaminergic areas they identified:
The substantia nigra
dopamine
, a atomic midbrain area that manufactured a component of the basal ganglia
dopamine
. The dopamine neurons are open principally in a move of this organize label the score compacta and happen .
dopamine
In rodents, their most central projections go to the striatum
dopamine
, globus pallidus
dopamine
, and subthalamic nucleus
dopamine
, all of which also belong to the basic ganglia, and play important roles in motor control. The name substantia nigra is Latin for "dark substance", and think of to the fact that the dopaminergic neurons at that place are in darkness pigmented. These neurons are especially vulnerable to damage. When a large fraction of them die, the prove is a Parkinsonian syndrome
dopamine
.
dopamine
The ventral tegmental area
dopamine
, different midbrain area. This cell groups is the largest groups of dopaminergic cells in the human brain, though still instead small in absolute terms. Projections from these dopaminergic neurons go to the nucleus accumbens
dopamine
and the prefrontal cortex
dopamine
as surface as any variant areas.
dopamine
These neurons vie a principal role in accept and variant aspects of motivation. The nucleus accumbens is frequently considered to be the "limbic" move of the striatum
dopamine
. As such, it is the move of the striatum refer in the advanced level aspects of travel control, which include motivation and decision-making. Thus, the role of the VTA in motivation and decision-making is structurally akin to the role of the substantia nigra in low-level travel control.
dopamine
In primates , the dopamine neurons from the regions of the substantia nigra and VTA covenant throughout most of the cortical mantle, with particularly dense innervation of the travel and premotor cortices. Thus, there are bones species differences in cortical dopamine projections.
dopamine
The endorse hypothalamus. These dopaminergic cells covenant to the spinal cord, and their services is not well established. At that place is some evidence that pathology in this area plays a role in restless legs syndrome
dopamine
, a condition in which populate keep difficulty sleeping due to an interest compulsion to invariably setting move of the body, particularly the legs.
dopamine
The arcuate nucleus
dopamine
and periventricular nucleus
dopamine
of the hypothalamus
dopamine
. An central projection from these dopaminergic neurons end to the pituitary gland
dopamine
, where it affect the secretion of the hormone prolactin
dopamine
. dopamine is the capital neuroendocrine
dopamine
inhibitor of the secretion of prolactin
dopamine
from the anterior pituitary
dopamine
gland. dopamine perform by neurons in the trend nucleus is exude into the hypothalamo-hypophysial daub vessels
dopamine
of the median eminence
dopamine
, which gates the pituitary gland
dopamine
. The lactotrope cells that outputs prolactin
dopamine
, in the absence of dopamine, secrete prolactin continuously; dopamine inhibits this secretion. Thus, in the context of change prolactin secretion, dopamine is on occasion label prolactin-inhibiting factor , prolactin-inhibiting hormone , or prolactostatin.
dopamine
The zona incerta
dopamine
. These cells covenant to any areas of the hypothalamus, and act in the tamper of gonadotropin-releasing hormone
dopamine
, which is constituent to initiate the development of fruitful systems that occurs following puberty, any in males and females.
dopamine

dopamine perform not cycle the blood–brain barrier
dopamine
, so its synthesis and work in marginal areas are to a large degree independent of its synthesis and work in the brain. A substantial amounts of dopamine circulates in the bloodstream, but its work at that place are not entirely clear. dopamine is open in blood plasma at levels comparable to those of epinephrine
dopamine
, but in humans, finished 95% of the dopamine in the plasma is in the perform of dopamine sulphate, a blend perform by the enzyme Sulfotransferase 1A3/1A4
dopamine
temporary on liberate dopamine. The bulge of this dopamine sulphate is perform in the mesentric organs
dopamine
that surround move of the digestive system. The production of dopamine sulphate is thought to be a mechanism for remove dopamine that is consume as food or produced by the digestive process — plasma aim typically rise more than fifty-fold after a meal. dopamine sulphate has no known biological work and is excreted in urine.
dopamine

Beyond its role in modulating daub flow, at that place are several marginal systems in which dopamine travel within a manipulate area and make an exocrine
dopamine
or paracrine
dopamine
function.
dopamine
The marginal systems in which dopamine playing an central role include:
The immune system. dopamine acts upon receptors show on immune cells, particularly lymphocytes
dopamine
.
dopamine
dopamine can besides processing immune cells in the spleen
dopamine
, bone marrow
dopamine
, and circulatory system
dopamine
.
dopamine
In addition, dopamine can be integrated and let go of by immune cells themselves.
dopamine
The main effect of dopamine on lymphocytes is to reduce their activation level. The structural significance of this system is unclear, but it travel a possible route for interactions betwixt the neural system and immune system, and may be applicable to some autoimmune disorders.
dopamine
The kidneys. aggregate copied of dopamine receptors are show in cells of the kidneys
dopamine
. dopamine is besides integrated there, by tubule
dopamine
cells, and unemployed into the tubular fluid
dopamine
. Its contest include augmentative the blood supply to the kidneys, augmentative filtration by the glomeruli, and augmentative excretion of sodium in the urine. escaping in renal dopamine services can be produced by high blood forces or by ancestral problems, and can lead to decrease sodium excretion as well as hypertension.
dopamine
The pancreas. The role of dopamine show is slightly complex. The pancreas
dopamine
be of two parts, characterized as exocrine
dopamine
and endocrine
dopamine
. The exocrine move compound enzymes and variant substances, and exude them into the small intestine
dopamine
, where food is digested. One of the substances integrated and secretes by the exocrine pancreas is dopamine. The function of this secretes dopamine after it enter the small intestine is not clearly established — the possibilities includes protecting the intestinal mucosa from dress and reducing gastrointestinal motility
dopamine
.
dopamine
The endocrinal move of the pancreas, besides characterized as the islets of Langerhans
dopamine
, integrated a be of hormones, include insulin
dopamine
, and secreted them into the bloodstream. At that place is certified that the beta cells
dopamine
that compound insulin contain dopamine receptors, and that dopamine acts to reduce the amount of insulin they release. The obtain of their dopamine input is not clearly established — it may happen from dopamine that circulates in the bloodstream and derives from the sympathetic neural system, or it may be synthesized locally by other types of pancreatic cells.
dopamine
multicellular perform important article: dopamine receptor
dopamine
dopamine receptors in the mammal single Family Receptor Gene write Mechanism D1-like
dopamine
D1
dopamine
DRD1
dopamine
Gs
dopamine
-coupled. added intracellular aim of cAMP
dopamine
by initiate adenylate cyclase
dopamine
. D5
dopamine
DRD5
dopamine
D2-like
dopamine
D2
dopamine
DRD2
dopamine
Gi/Go
dopamine
-coupled. reduces intracellular aim of cAMP
dopamine
by tamper adenylate cyclase
dopamine
. D3
dopamine
DRD3
dopamine
D4
dopamine
DRD4
dopamine

The level of extracellular dopamine is modulated by two mechanisms: tonal and phasic dopamine transmission. tonal dopamine transmission occurs when atomic amounts of dopamine are let go of independently of neuronal activity, and is change by the activity of variant neurons and neurotransmitter reuptake.
dopamine
Phasic dopamine sacrifice prove from the activity of the dopamine-containing cells themselves. This activity is known by asymmetrical pacemaking
dopamine
activity of only spikes, and abstain break of typically 2-6 banish in abstain succession.
dopamine
dopamine

The substantia nigra dopamine system and travel tamper
dopamine
dopamine
important travel of the basal ganglia
dopamine
. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamine
to the striatum
dopamine
is show in lighten blue.
Dopamine is thought to vie the response selection affect in at least two important ways. First, dopamine sets the "effort threshold" for initiating behaviors. The higher the pointed of dopamine activity, the move the impetus required to evoke a given behavior. As a consequence, advanced aim of dopamine lead to advanced aim of motor activity and "impulsive" behavior; low aim of dopamine lead to torpor and reduces reactions. Parkinson's disease
dopamine
, in which dopamine aim in the substantia nigra circuit are greatly reduced, is known by stiffness and greatly decrease movement—however, when populate with the disease are confronted with strongest stimuli such as a serious threat, their reactions can be as vigorous as those of a healthy person. In the different direction, drugs that increase the effects of dopamine, such as cocaine or amphetamine, outputs heightened aim of activity, including at the highest aim psychomotor agitation
dopamine
and classify movements.
The anatomy of the basic ganglia is extraordinarily complex, and the role of dopamine at that place is correspondingly complex. On a visible decide at that place is single one major dopamine projection, from the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamine
to the striatum
dopamine
, but the dopamine input contact multiple types of neurons and keep several antithetic effects on their targets, activating any via D1 receptors while tamper others via D2 receptors. A substantial be of dopamine input are delivered to the necks of dendritic spines
dopamine
, where they are well-placed to dedicated a supply effect on specific synaptic connections, frequently arose from the cerebral cortex. At that place are two distinct pathways of signal flow arose from the striatum, known as the direct pathway
dopamine
and indirect pathway
dopamine
. dopamine is think to further contest by upregulating the operating pathway while tamper the mediate pathway.
The ventral tegmental area
dopamine
contains the ample groups of dopamine neurons in the human brain. They covenant to galore brain areas, but the two ample projections are the mesolimbic pathway
dopamine
, which level the nucleus accumbens
dopamine
and variant limbic
dopamine
structures, and the mesocortical pathway
dopamine
, which level the prefrontal
dopamine
and insular
dopamine
move of the psychological cortex.
accept
In spite of the overwhelming evidence showing a strongest association between dopamine and reward, at that place has been a great deal of challenged about whether the services of dopamine should be described as reward per se, or as some more complex construct that relates strongly to reward. The difficulty arises principally from two observations: in addition to be rewarding, dopamine is also arousing — it produces a widespread increase in movement of all sorts; dopamine release can be caused by events that do not seem to keep anything to do with reward, most notably pain. One of the most popular alternatives to the reward theory is the "incentive salience
dopamine
" theory, which show that the services of dopamine is to added the perform of motivators of all sorts, any affirmative and negative.
dopamine

revolutionary research finds that while any dopaminergic neurons refused in the way evaluate of reward neurons, others do not and seem to act in reasons to salience, include aversive stimuli.
dopamine
This experiment finds the accept neurons dominate in the ventromedial region of the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamine
, as surface as in the ventral tegmental area
dopamine
. Neurons in these areas covenant principally to the ventral striatum
dopamine
and hence might cash value-related information in reasons to accept values.
dopamine
The salience neurons are predominate in the dorsolateral area of the substantia nigra get compacta which covenant to the dorsal striatum
dopamine
and may predicate to lie behaviour.
dopamine
It has been suggested that the difference betwixt these two copied of dopaminergic neurons become from their input: reward-linked ones keep inputs from the basal forebrain
dopamine
, while the salience-related ones from the lateral habenula
dopamine
.
dopamine
In primates, neurons from the regions of any the substantia nigra and VTA covenant to the frontal cortex;
dopamine
the origins of the dopamine innervation of variant cortical areas in primate have not appeared studied. It has appeared appreciated for galore years that exposure to flat mild, intractable underlines increases dopamine release in the rodent frontal cortex, e.g. reviewed in,
dopamine
suggested that dopamine salience cells keep a ample manipulate on this cortical region.
"Seeking" versus "liking"
dopamine's effects on advanced cognitive function keep appeared studied in control and rodents. This work began with the landmark study of Brozoski et al., 1979 showing that depletion of catecholamines from the dorsolateral frontal cortex in control impaired spatial working memory to the same degree as work the cortex itself.
dopamine
It is now characterized that both dopamine and norepinephrine have necessary contest on frontal cortical function, and help packing cognitive note with arousal state.
dopamine
dopamine has an "inverted U" manipulate on frontal services through its actions on D1 receptors, where either too smallest or too such damage working memory function.
dopamine
In the primate frontal cortex, dopamine D1 receptor stimulation selectively influences the blast of "Delay" cells , while dopamine D2 receptors selectively change the blast of "Response cells".
dopamine

Diseases and unhinged
Parkinson's disease
dopamine
is a unhinged known by stiffness of the body, slowing of movement, and shake of limbs when they are not in use. In advanced re-create it progresses to dementia and eventually death. The important symptoms are perform by ample loss of dopamine-secreting cells in the substantia nigra
dopamine
. These dopamine cells are particularly assailable to damage, and a variety of insults, include encephalitis
dopamine
, translated sports-related concussions
dopamine
, and any manufactured of chemic poisoning , can stolen to considerable cell loss, perform a Parkinsonian syndrome
dopamine
that is akin in its main have to Parkinson's disease. Most cases of Parkinson's disease, however, are "idiopathic", convey that the perform of cell death cannot be identified.
drying dopamine neurotransmission is refer in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
dopamine
, a inform think with impaired ability to standardized attention, behavior, and/or impulses. At that place are any genetic links betwixt dopamine receptors, the dopamine transporter and ADHD,
dopamine
in addition to links to other neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. The most central relationship betwixt dopamine and ADHD involves the drugs that are used to treat ADHD. any of the most effective therapeutic agents for ADHD are psychostimulants much as methylphenidate
dopamine
and amphetamine
dopamine
, medicate that added any dopamine and norepinephrine aim in brain.
dopamine

medicate addiction
The addiction potential for stimulants is strongly dependent on the level of dopamine increase they produce." reliable sources ">medical citation needed
dopamine
]
dopamine has appeared display to vie a role in pain
dopamine
disturbs in aggregate aim of the central neural system
dopamine
include the spinal cord
dopamine
, periaqueductal gray
dopamine
, thalamus
dopamine
, basal ganglia
dopamine
, and cingulate cortex
dopamine
. Accordingly, change magnitude aim of dopamine keep been think with aching symptoms that often happen in Parkinson's disease
dopamine
. Abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission keep besides appeared display in aching objective conditions, include burning network syndrome
dopamine
,
dopamine
fibromyalgia
dopamine
, and restless legs syndrome
dopamine
. In general, the analgesic capacity of dopamine occurs as a prove of dopamine D2 receptor activation; however, exceptions to this exist in the PAG, in which dopamine D1 receptor activation change pain presumably via activation of neurons refer in descendant inhibition.
dopamine
In addition, D1 receptor activation in the insular cortex been to weaken later pain-related behavior.
Nausea
Abnormally advanced dopaminergic transmission has appeared think to psychosis
dopamine
and schizophrenia
dopamine
.
dopamine
However, objective studies think schizophrenia to brain dopamine metabolism keep range from plausible to negative, with HVA levels in the CSF the same for schizophrenics and controls.
dopamine
Change magnitude dopaminergic structural activity, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway
dopamine
, is open in insane individuals. However, change magnitude activity in different dopaminergic pathway, the mesocortical pathway
dopamine
, may besides be involved. The two pathways are think to be accountable for differs travel of symptoms perceive in schizophrenia.
dopaminergic dysregulation has besides appeared think to depressive disorders.
dopamine
aboriginal research in humans used various methods of investigates dopamine aim and services in discourage patients. Studies keep inform that there is decreased concentration of tyrosine
dopamine
, a precursor to dopamine, in the daub plasma, ventricular spinal fluid, and lumbar spinal liquid of objects patients analyze to tamper subjects.
dopamine
dopamine
One major decide the amounts of homovanillic acid
dopamine
, the bones metabolite of dopamine in the CSF, as a marker for the dopamine pathway turnover rate, and open change magnitude concentrations of homovanillic harsh in the CSF of objects patients.
dopamine
Postmordem actual quantify reverse transcriptase-polymerase arrange reaction
dopamine
has besides appeared employed to determine that gene expression of a special subtype of dopamine receptor was tasks in the amygdala
dopamine
of populate smouldering from depression as analyze to tamper subjects.
dopamine

More than recent research analyse with rodents keep open that depression-related behaviors are think with dopaminergic system dysregulation.
dopamine
In rodents exposed to degenerative milder stress, change magnitude flee behavior and change magnitude compel swimming is improved with activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway
dopamine
.
dopamine
Also, rodents that are allergic to depression-related behavior aft social defeat
dopamine
can keep their behavior improved with dopamine pathway activation.
dopamine
Depletion of dopamine in the caudate nucleus
dopamine
and nucleus accumbens has besides appeared inform in inspect of learned helplessness
dopamine
in animals. These symptoms can be improved with dopamine agonists and antidepressant administration antecedent to the larn helplessness protocol.
dopamine

Comparative biology and evolution Microorganisms
Dopamine is used as an intercellular messenger in virtually all cellular animals. In wipe only a only warning existing of the presence of dopamine, with no indication of its function;
dopamine
however, dopamine has appeared inform in the neural systems of galore radially bilateral species, include cnidaria
dopamine
.
dopamine
This dates the emergence of dopamine as a neurotransmitter endorse to the aboriginal appearance of the neural system, finished 500 cardinal years ago in the Cambrian era
dopamine
. Among endangered species, dopamine work as a neurotransmitter in vertebrates, echinoderms
dopamine
, arthropods
dopamine
, molluscs
dopamine
, and any copied of worms.
dopamine
dopamine

Dopamine also consistently plays a role in accept learning, in all animal groups that keep appeared examined minds arthropods. In nematodes, planarians, molluscs, and vertebrates, animals can be trained to repeat an contest if it is consistently followed by an increase in dopamine levels.
dopamine
Arthropods are an exception, though. In these species — insects, crustaceans, etc. — dopamine has an aversive effect, and accept is rather bargain by octopamine
dopamine
, a neurotransmitter that is not open in vertebrates but is think to be intimately think to norepinephrine
dopamine
. In insects, dopamine increases aversion larn for olfactory stimuli as surface as optic stimuli, and slowing approach larn for stimuli that are followed by rewards. It also dress known for aversive memories and slowing known for positive memories.
dopamine
The origin of the hint reversal betwixt dopamine's perform in arthropods versus all variant copied of animals has not been explained.
put
dopamine
dopamine
dopamine can be open in the peel
dopamine
and fruits take out of bananas
dopamine

dopamine consuming in food cannot act on the brain, because it cannot cycle the blood–brain barrier
dopamine
. However, at that place are besides a variety of put that contain L-DOPA
dopamine
, the metabolic precursor of dopamine.
dopamine
The advanced concentrations are open in the move and single shell of put of the genus Mucuna
dopamine
, particularly in Mucuna pruriens
dopamine
, which keep appeared employed as a obtain for L-DOPA as a drug.
dopamine
different put containing considerable amounting of L-DOPA is Vicia faba
dopamine
, the put that produces fava hit . The level of L-DOPA in the beans, however, is such move than in the pod bombard and variant move of the plant.
dopamine
The travel of Cassia
dopamine
and Bauhinia
dopamine
steer besides contain considerable amounting of L-DOPA.
dopamine

Melanins
dopamine
are a family of dark-pigmented substances that are found in a widest range of organisms. Their animal properties make them difficult to work with experimentally, and consequently a number of aspects of their biochemistry are not well understood. Chemically they are closely think to dopamine, and at that place is a type of melanin, characterized as "dopamine-melanin", that can be synthesized by oxidation of dopamine via the enzyme tyrosinase
dopamine
.
dopamine
The melanin that change human escalade is not of this type: it is integrated by a pathway that use L-DOPA
dopamine
as a precursor but not dopamine. However, at that place is considerable certified that the "neuromelanin" that give a acheronian improved to the brain's substantia nigra
dopamine
is at least in move dopamine-melanin.
dopamine

alto the marketing designate Intropin, Dopastat, Revimine, or variant names, dopamine can be employed as a drug
dopamine
in injectable
dopamine
form. It is most ordinarily employed in the treatment of intensive hypotension
dopamine
, bradycardia
dopamine
, circulatory shock
dopamine
, or cardiac arrest
dopamine
, especially in young infants. Its effects, be on dosage, includes an added in sodium excretion by the kidneys, an added in urine output, an added in heart rate, and an added in daub pressure. At a "cardiac dose" of 5 to 10 μg/kg/min, dopamine acts through the sympathetic neural system
dopamine
to increase heart cycle contraction force and heart rate, thereby augmentative cardiac perform and daub pressure. At a "pressor dose" of 10 to 20 μg/kg/min, dopamine besides perform vasoconstriction
dopamine
that favor change magnitude daub pressure, but can produce contests sides perform much as an impairment of kidney services and cardiac arrhythmias
dopamine
.
dopamine
dopamine
Older literature also describes a so-called "renal dose" of 2 to 5 μg/kg/min thought to change kidney function without variant consequences, but recent reviews have reasons that affect at this low pointed are not clinically actual and may sometimes be harmful.
dopamine

L-DOPA
Cocaine and amphetamines manipulate the re-uptake
dopamine
of dopamine; however, they manipulate segment mechanisms of action. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter
dopamine
and norepinephrine transporter
dopamine
blocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to added the lifetime of dopamine and augments an overabundance of dopamine indoors the parameters of the dopamine neurotransmitters. seeking cocaine, amphetamines added the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic
dopamine
gap, but by a other mechanism. Amphetamine and methamphetamine
dopamine
are akin in organize to dopamine, and so can entered the terminal bouton of the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters as well as by diffusing doner the neural membrane directly.
dopamine
Upon entered the presynaptic neuron, amphetamines initiate Trace Amine Receptor 1
dopamine
which, doner protein kinase A
dopamine
and protein kinase C
dopamine
signaling, perform dopamine efflux and non-competitive reuptake inhibition.
dopamine
Since amphetamines are structurally akin to trace amines
dopamine
, they are besides substrates for monoamine transporters; consequently, they competitively manipulate the reuptake of dopamine and variant monoamines as well.
dopamine

Antipsychotic medicate
Even so, the widespread use of antipsychotic drugs has desire been controversial. There are any reasons for this. First, these drugs are perceived as very aversive by people who have to lead them, because they outputs a widespread dullness of thought and silence the ability to experience pleasure.
dopamine
Second, it is harder to display that they act specifically against psychotic behaviors rather than merely suppressing all types of about behavior. Third, they can outputs a range of serious sides effects, including weight gain, diabetes, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, hormonal changes, and a type of movement unhinged known as tardive dyskinesia
dopamine
. any of these sides perform may act desire aft the cessation of medicate use, or flat permanently.
The LD50, or process which is evaluate to be fatal in 50% of the population, has appeared open to be: 59 mg/kg ; 950 mg/kg ; 163 mg/kg ; 79 mg/kg
dopamine

Structurally, dopamine be to the catecholamine
dopamine
and phenethylamine
dopamine
classes. In biologic systems, dopamine is integrated in single cells and adrenal cells from the precursor L-DOPA
dopamine
. In single cells, it is setting to synaptic
dopamine
travel and packaged into vesicles for release, which occurring during synaptic transmission. After release, free dopamine is either reabsorbed into the presynaptic terminal for reuse, or incomplete drink by the enzymes monoamine oxidase
dopamine
or COMT, perform a variety of degradation metabolites.
Biosynthesis
dopamine
dopamine
Catecholamine biosynthesis
hence the operating precursor of dopamine is L-DOPA
dopamine
, but this itself can be integrated from the necessary aminic harsh phenylalanine
dopamine
or the non-essential aminic harsh tyrosine
dopamine
. These amino acids are open in active every protein and as such are provided from ingestion of protein-containing food, with tyrosine being the most common. Although dopamine itself is besides open in galore types of food, it is unable of crossing the blood–brain barrier
dopamine
that hint and protecting the brain. It essential hence be synthesized within the single in ordering to make its nervous actions.
dopamine itself is besides employed as precursor in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine
dopamine
and epinephrine
dopamine
. dopamine is converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase
dopamine
, with O2 and L-ascorbic acid
dopamine
as cofactors. Norepinephrine is converted into epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
dopamine
with S-adenosyl-L-methionine
dopamine
as the cofactor.
within the single dopamine work as a neurotransmitter
dopamine
, and is manipulate by a set of mechanisms that are communal to all neurotransmitters. aft synthesis, dopamine is setting from the cytosol
dopamine
into synaptic vesicles
dopamine
by the vesicular monoamine transporter 2
dopamine
. dopamine is have in and be in these vesicles until an action potential
dopamine
occurring and perform the restrict of the vesicles to be expel into the synaptic cleft
dopamine
.
aft an contest potential, the dopamine molecules rapidly arose detach from their receptors. They are sometime sorb endorse into the presynaptic cell, via reuptake
dopamine
bargain either by the high-affinity dopamine transporter
dopamine
or by the low-affinity plasma membrane monoamine transporter
dopamine
. formerly endorse in the cytosol, dopamine is subsequent repackaged into vesicles by VMAT2, building it approachable for upcoming release.
Degradation
dopamine
dopamine
dopamine degradation
The metabolites perform by these affect are:
DOPAL DOPAC DOPET MOPET 3-MT HVA
The special reactions that forms up these pathways are:
dopamine → DOPAL, bargain by MAO DOPAL → DOPAC, bargain by ALDH
dopamine
DOPAL → DOPET, bargain by aldose reductase
dopamine
DOPAC → HVA, bargain by COMT DOPET → MOPET, bargain by COMT dopamine → 3-MT, bargain by COMT 3-MT → HVA, bargain by MAO
Chemically, a dopamine molecule be of a catechol
dopamine
organize with one amine
dopamine
groups attached. As such, dopamine is the simple accomplishable catecholamine
dopamine
, a family that besides encompasses the neurotransmitters
dopamine
norepinephrine
dopamine
and epinephrine
dopamine
. The presence of a benzene look with an connect amine groups perform it a phenethylamine
dopamine
, a family that encompasses galore psychedelic drugs.
dopamine in the exemplified is commonly incomplete drink by oxidation change state by the enzyme monoamine oxidase
dopamine
. However, dopamine is besides able of autoxidation
dopamine
, that is, operating reaction with oxygen, produce quinones
dopamine
nonnegative antithetic free radicals
dopamine
as products.
dopamine
The sequenced of autoxidation can be increased by the presence of ferrous iron or variant factors. The ability of dopamine autoxidation to produce quinones and free radicals makes it a potent cell toxin, and there is evidence that this mechanism may contribute to cell loss that occurring in Parkinson's disease
dopamine
or variant conditions.
dopamine

Polydopamine
Polydopamine coatings can perform on deprecated ranging in size from nanoparticles to large surfaces. Polydopamine layers have chemical properties that have the latent to be extremely useful, and numerous studies have examined their possible applications. At the simplest level, they can be used for protection against damage by light, or to perform capsules for drug delivery. At a more groomed level, their adhesive properties may make them useful as substrates for biosensors or variant biologically active macromolecules.
dopamine

History important article: History of catecholamine research
dopamine

dopamine
Epinephrine
dopamine
Melatonin
dopamine
NAS
dopamine
Norepinephrine
dopamine
Serotonin
dopamine
Purines
dopamine
Adenosine
dopamine
ADP
dopamine
AMP
dopamine
ATP
dopamine
Trace amines
dopamine
3-ITA
dopamine
5-MeO-DMT
dopamine
Bufotenin
dopamine
DMT
dopamine
m-Octopamine
dopamine
p-Octopamine
dopamine
m-Tyramine
dopamine
p-Tyramine
dopamine
NMT
dopamine
Phenethylamine
dopamine
Synephrine
dopamine
Thyronamine
dopamine
Tryptamine
dopamine
Others 1,4-BD
dopamine
Acetylcholine
dopamine
GBL
dopamine
GHB
dopamine
Histamine
dopamine
See besides Template:Neuropeptides
dopamine

anat
dopamine
/phys
dopamine
/devp
dopamine
/prot
dopamine
/nttr
dopamine
/nttm
dopamine
/ntrp
dopamine

proc
dopamine
, medicate
v
dopamine
t
dopamine
e
dopamine
dopaminergics
dopamine
  Receptor
dopamine
ligands
dopamine
Agonists
dopamine
Adamantanes: Amantadine
dopamine
Memantine
dopamine
Rimantadine
dopamine
; Aminotetralins: 7-OH-DPAT
dopamine
8-OH-PBZI
dopamine
Rotigotine
dopamine
UH-232
dopamine
; Benzazepines: 6-Br-APB
dopamine
Fenoldopam
dopamine
SKF-38,393
dopamine
SKF-77,434
dopamine
SKF-81,297
dopamine
SKF-82,958
dopamine
SKF-83,959
dopamine
; Ergolines: Bromocriptine
dopamine
Cabergoline
dopamine
Dihydroergocryptine
dopamine
Epicriptine
dopamine
Lisuride
dopamine
LSD
dopamine
Pergolide
dopamine
; Dihydrexidine derivatives: 2-OH-NPA
dopamine
A-86,929
dopamine
Ciladopa
dopamine
Dihydrexidine
dopamine
Dinapsoline
dopamine
Dinoxyline
dopamine
Doxanthrine
dopamine
; Others: A-68,930
dopamine
A-77636
dopamine
A-412,997
dopamine
ABT-670
dopamine
ABT-724
dopamine
Aplindore
dopamine
Apomorphine
dopamine
Aripiprazole
dopamine
Bifeprunox
dopamine
BP-897
dopamine
CY-208,243
dopamine
Dizocilpine
dopamine
Etilevodopa
dopamine
Flibanserin
dopamine
Ketamine
dopamine
Melevodopa
dopamine
Modafinil
dopamine
Pardoprunox
dopamine
Phencyclidine
dopamine
PD-128,907
dopamine
PD-168,077
dopamine
PF-219,061
dopamine
Piribedil
dopamine
Pramipexole
dopamine
Propylnorapomorphine
dopamine
Pukateine
dopamine
Quinagolide
dopamine
Quinelorane
dopamine
Quinpirole
dopamine
RDS-127
dopamine
Ro10-5824
dopamine
Ropinirole
dopamine
Rotigotine
dopamine
Roxindole
dopamine
Salvinorin A
dopamine
SKF-89,145
dopamine
Sumanirole
dopamine
Terguride
dopamine
Umespirone
dopamine
WAY-100,635
dopamine
Antagonists
dopamine
emblematic antipsychotics: Acepromazine
dopamine
Azaperone
dopamine
Benperidol
dopamine
Bromperidol
dopamine
Clopenthixol
dopamine
Chlorpromazine
dopamine
Chlorprothixene
dopamine
Droperidol
dopamine
Flupentixol
dopamine
Fluphenazine
dopamine
Fluspirilene
dopamine
Haloperidol
dopamine
Levosulpiride
dopamine
Loxapine
dopamine
Mesoridazine
dopamine
Methotrimeprazine
dopamine
Nemonapride
dopamine
Penfluridol
dopamine
Perazine
dopamine
Periciazine
dopamine
Perphenazine
dopamine
Pimozide
dopamine
Prochlorperazine
dopamine
Promazine
dopamine
Sulforidazine
dopamine
Sulpiride
dopamine
Sultopride
dopamine
Thioridazine
dopamine
Thiothixene
dopamine
Trifluoperazine
dopamine
Triflupromazine
dopamine
Trifluperidol
dopamine
Zuclopenthixol
dopamine
; Unrepresentative antipsychotics: Amisulpride
dopamine
Asenapine
dopamine
Blonanserin
dopamine
Cariprazine
dopamine
Carpipramine
dopamine
Clocapramine
dopamine
Clorotepine
dopamine
Clozapine
dopamine
Gevotroline
dopamine
Iloperidone
dopamine
Lurasidone
dopamine
Melperone
dopamine
Molindone
dopamine
Mosapramine
dopamine
Olanzapine
dopamine
Paliperidone
dopamine
Perospirone
dopamine
Piquindone
dopamine
Quetiapine
dopamine
Remoxipride
dopamine
Risperidone
dopamine
Sertindole
dopamine
Tiospirone
dopamine
Zicronapine
dopamine
Ziprasidone
dopamine
Zotepine
dopamine
; Antiemetics: AS-8112
dopamine
Alizapride
dopamine
Bromopride
dopamine
Clebopride
dopamine
Domperidone
dopamine
Metoclopramide
dopamine
Thiethylperazine
dopamine
; Others: Amoxapine
dopamine
Buspirone
dopamine
Butaclamol
dopamine
Ecopipam
dopamine
EEDQ
dopamine
Eticlopride
dopamine
Fananserin
dopamine
Hydroxyzine
dopamine
L-745,870
dopamine
Nafadotride
dopamine
Nuciferine
dopamine
PNU-99,194
dopamine
Raclopride
dopamine
Sarizotan
dopamine
SB-277,011-A
dopamine
SCH-23,390
dopamine
SKF-83,959
dopamine
Sonepiprazole
dopamine
Spiperone
dopamine
Spiroxatrine
dopamine
Stepholidine
dopamine
Tetrahydropalmatine
dopamine
Tiapride
dopamine
UH-232
dopamine
Yohimbine
dopamine
  Reuptake inhibitors
dopamine
Plasmalemmal
dopamine
DAT
dopamine
inhibitors Piperazines: DBL-583
dopamine
GBR-12,935
dopamine
Nefazodone
dopamine
Vanoxerine
dopamine
; Piperidines: BTCP
dopamine
Desoxypipradrol
dopamine
Dextromethylphenidate
dopamine
Difemetorex
dopamine
Ethylphenidate
dopamine
Methylnaphthidate
dopamine
Methylphenidate
dopamine
Phencyclidine
dopamine
Pipradrol
dopamine
; Pyrrolidines: Diphenylprolinol
dopamine
MDPV
dopamine
Naphyrone
dopamine
Prolintane
dopamine
Pyrovalerone
dopamine
; Tropanes: Altropane
dopamine
Brasofensine
dopamine
CFT
dopamine
Cocaine
dopamine
Dichloropane
dopamine
Difluoropine
dopamine
FE-β-CPPIT
dopamine
FP-β-CPPIT
dopamine
Ioflupane
dopamine
Iometopane
dopamine
RTI-112
dopamine
RTI-113
dopamine
RTI-121
dopamine
RTI-126
dopamine
RTI-150
dopamine
RTI-177
dopamine
RTI-229
dopamine
RTI-336
dopamine
Tenocyclidine
dopamine
Tesofensine
dopamine
Troparil
dopamine
Tropoxane
dopamine
WF-11
dopamine
WF-23
dopamine
WF-31
dopamine
WF-33
dopamine
; Others: Adrafinil
dopamine
Armodafinil
dopamine
Amfonelic acid
dopamine
Amphetamine
dopamine
Amineptine
dopamine
Benzatropine
dopamine
Bromantane
dopamine
BTQ
dopamine
BTS-74,398
dopamine
Bupropion
dopamine
Ciclazindol
dopamine
Diclofensine
dopamine
Dimethocaine
dopamine
Diphenylpyraline
dopamine
Dizocilpine
dopamine
DOV-102,677
dopamine
DOV-21,947
dopamine
DOV-216,303
dopamine
Etybenzatropine
dopamine
EXP-561
dopamine
Fencamine
dopamine
Fencamfamine
dopamine
Fezolamine
dopamine
Fluorenol
dopamine
GYKI-52,895
dopamine
Indatraline
dopamine
Ketamine
dopamine
Lefetamine
dopamine
Levophacetoperane
dopamine
LR-5182
dopamine
Manifaxine
dopamine
Mazindol
dopamine
Medifoxamine
dopamine
Mesocarb
dopamine
Modafinil
dopamine
Nefopam
dopamine
Nomifensine
dopamine
NS-2359
dopamine
O-2172
dopamine
Pridefrine
dopamine
Propylamphetamine
dopamine
Radafaxine
dopamine
SEP-225,289
dopamine
SEP-227,162
dopamine
Sertraline
dopamine
Sibutramine
dopamine
Tametraline
dopamine
Tedatioxetine
dopamine
Tripelennamine
dopamine
Vesicular
dopamine
VMAT
dopamine
inhibitors Deserpidine
dopamine
Ibogaine
dopamine
Reserpine
dopamine
Tetrabenazine
dopamine
  Releasing agents
dopamine
Morpholines: Fenbutrazate
dopamine
Fenmetramide
dopamine
Morazone
dopamine
Phendimetrazine
dopamine
Phenmetrazine
dopamine
Pseudophenmetrazine
dopamine
; Oxazolines: 4-MAR
dopamine
Aminorex
dopamine
Clominorex
dopamine
Cyclazodone
dopamine
Fenozolone
dopamine
Fluminorex
dopamine
Pemoline
dopamine
Thozalinone
dopamine
; Phenethylamines : 2-OH-PEA
dopamine
4-CAB
dopamine
4-FA
dopamine
4-FMA
dopamine
4-MA
dopamine
4-MMA
dopamine
Alfetamine
dopamine
Amfecloral
dopamine
Amfepentorex
dopamine
Amfepramone
dopamine
Amphetamine
dopamine
Amphetaminil
dopamine
β-Me-PEA
dopamine
BDB
dopamine
BOH
dopamine
Benzphetamine
dopamine
Buphedrone
dopamine
Butylone
dopamine
Cathine
dopamine
Cathinone
dopamine
Clobenzorex
dopamine
Clortermine
dopamine
D-Deprenyl
dopamine
DMA
dopamine
DMMA
dopamine
Dimethylamphetamine
dopamine
Dimethylcathinone
dopamine
Ephedrine
dopamine
Ethcathinone
dopamine
EBDB
dopamine
Ethylone
dopamine
Etilamfetamine
dopamine
Famprofazone
dopamine
Fenethylline
dopamine
Fenproporex
dopamine
Flephedrone
dopamine
Fludorex
dopamine
Furfenorex
dopamine
Hordenine
dopamine
Hydroxyamphetamine
dopamine
Iofetamine
dopamine
Lophophine
dopamine
Mefenorex
dopamine
Mephedrone
dopamine
Methamphetamine
dopamine
Methcathinone
dopamine
Methedrone
dopamine
MMDA
dopamine
MMDMA
dopamine
MBDB
dopamine
MDA
dopamine
MDEA
dopamine
MDMA
dopamine
MDMPEA
dopamine
MDOH
dopamine
MDPEA
dopamine
Methylone
dopamine
Ortetamine
dopamine
pBA
dopamine
pCA
dopamine
pIA
dopamine
Pholedrine
dopamine
Phenethylamine
dopamine
Pholedrine
dopamine
Phenpromethamine
dopamine
Prenylamine
dopamine
Propylamphetamine
dopamine
Pseudoephedrine
dopamine
Tiflorex
dopamine
Tyramine
dopamine
Xylopropamine
dopamine
Zylofuramine
dopamine
; Piperazines: 2C-B-BZP
dopamine
BZP
dopamine
MBZP
dopamine
MDBZP
dopamine
MeOPP
dopamine
; Others: 2-ADN
dopamine
2-AI
dopamine
2-AT
dopamine
4-BP
dopamine
5-IAI
dopamine
Clofenciclan
dopamine
Cyclopentamine
dopamine
Cypenamine
dopamine
Cyprodenate
dopamine
Feprosidnine
dopamine
Gilutensin
dopamine
Heptaminol
dopamine
Hexacyclonate
dopamine
IAP
dopamine
Indanorex
dopamine
Isometheptene
dopamine
Methylhexanamine
dopamine
Naphthylisopropylamine
dopamine
Octodrine
dopamine
Phthalimidopropiophenone
dopamine
Propylhexedrine
dopamine
Tuaminoheptane
dopamine
  Allosteric modulators
dopamine
Quinazolinamines: SoRI-9804
dopamine
SoRI-20040
dopamine
SoRI-20041
dopamine
  Enzyme inhibitors
dopamine
Anabolism
dopamine
PAH
dopamine
inhibitors 3,4-Dihydroxystyrene
dopamine
TH
dopamine
inhibitors 3-Iodotyrosine
dopamine
Aquayamycin
dopamine
Bulbocapnine
dopamine
Metirosine
dopamine
Oudenone
dopamine
AAAD/DDC
dopamine
inhibitors
dopamine
Benserazide
dopamine
Carbidopa
dopamine
DFMD
dopamine
Genistein
dopamine
Methyldopa
dopamine
Catabolism
dopamine
MAO inhibitors
dopamine
Nonselective: Benmoxin
dopamine
Caroxazone
dopamine
Echinopsidine
dopamine
Furazolidone
dopamine
Hydralazine
dopamine
Indantadol
dopamine
Iproclozide
dopamine
Iproniazid
dopamine
Isocarboxazid
dopamine
Isoniazid
dopamine
Linezolid
dopamine
Mebanazine
dopamine
Metfendrazine
dopamine
Nialamide
dopamine
Octamoxin
dopamine
Paraxazone
dopamine
Phenelzine
dopamine
Pheniprazine
dopamine
Phenoxypropazine
dopamine
Pivalylbenzhydrazine
dopamine
Procarbazine
dopamine
Safrazine
dopamine
Tranylcypromine
dopamine
; MAO-A selective: Amiflamine
dopamine
Bazinaprine
dopamine
Befloxatone
dopamine
Brofaromine
dopamine
Cimoxatone
dopamine
Clorgiline
dopamine
Eprobemide
dopamine
Esuprone
dopamine
Harmala alkaloids
dopamine
Methylene Blue
dopamine
Metralindole
dopamine
Minaprine
dopamine
Moclobemide
dopamine
Pirlindole
dopamine
Sercloremine
dopamine
Tetrindole
dopamine
Toloxatone
dopamine
Tyrima
dopamine
; MAO-B selective: D-Deprenyl
dopamine
Ethanol
dopamine
L-Deprenyl
dopamine
Ladostigil
dopamine
Lazabemide
dopamine
Milacemide
dopamine
Nicotine
dopamine
Pargyline
dopamine
Rasagiline
dopamine
Safinamide
dopamine
COMT inhibitors
dopamine
Entacapone
dopamine
Nitecapone
dopamine
Tolcapone
dopamine
DBH
dopamine
inhibitors Disulfiram
dopamine
Dopastin
dopamine
Fusaric acid
dopamine
Nepicastat
dopamine
Tropolone
dopamine
  Others Precursors
dopamine
L-Phenylalanine
dopamine
L-Tyrosine
dopamine
L-DOPA
dopamine
Cofactors
dopamine
Ferrous
dopamine
iron
dopamine
Tetrahydrobiopterin
dopamine
Vitamin B3
dopamine
Vitamin B6
dopamine
Vitamin B9
dopamine
Vitamin C
dopamine
Zinc
dopamine
Others Activity enhancers: BPAP
dopamine
* PPAP
dopamine
; Toxins: 6-OHDA
dopamine
; Steroids
dopamine
: Anabolic-androgenic steroids
dopamine
List of dopaminergic drugs
dopamine
v
dopamine
t
dopamine
e
dopamine
Phenethylamines
dopamine
Phenethylamines
dopamine
Psychedelics: 25B-NBOMe
dopamine
25C-NBOMe
dopamine
25D-NBOMe
dopamine
25I-NBOMe
dopamine
25N-NBOMe
dopamine
2C-B
dopamine
2C-B-FLY
dopamine
2C-C
dopamine
2C-D
dopamine
2C-E
dopamine
2C-EF
dopamine
2C-F
dopamine
2C-G
dopamine
2C-I
dopamine
2C-N
dopamine
2C-P
dopamine
2C-SE
dopamine
2C-T
dopamine
2C-T-2
dopamine
2C-T-4
dopamine
2C-T-7
dopamine
2C-T-8
dopamine
2C-T-9
dopamine
2C-T-13
dopamine
2C-T-15
dopamine
2C-T-17
dopamine
2C-T-21
dopamine
2C-TFM
dopamine
2C-YN
dopamine
Allylescaline
dopamine
DESOXY
dopamine
Escaline
dopamine
Isoproscaline
dopamine
Jimscaline
dopamine
Macromerine
dopamine
MEPEA
dopamine
Mescaline
dopamine
Metaescaline
dopamine
Methallylescaline
dopamine
Proscaline
dopamine
Psi-2C-T-4
dopamine
TCB-2
dopamine
Stimulants: Phenylethanolamine
dopamine
Hordenine
dopamine
Phenethylamine
dopamine
α-Methylphenethylamine
dopamine
β-Methylphenethylamine
dopamine
N-Methylphenethylamine
dopamine
o-Methylphenethylamine
dopamine
p-Methylphenethylamine
dopamine

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