dopaminefamilies that playing a be of central roles in the single and embody of animals. Its term derived from its chemical structure: it is an amine
dopaminethat is perform by work a carboxyl group
dopaminefrom a molecule of L-DOPA
any central diseases of the neural system are think with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Parkinson's disease
dopamine, a chronic inform make shake and motor impairment, is perform by loss of dopamine-secreting neurons in the midbrain area label the substantia nigra
dopamine. At that place is certified that schizophrenia
dopaminecenters altered aim of dopamine activity, and the antipsychotic drugs that are often employed to treat it keep a primary perform of weaken dopamine activity. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
dopamineand restless legs syndrome
dopamineare besides permit to be think with change magnitude dopamine activity.
A variety of important medicate work by altering the way the exemplified makes or uses dopamine. dopamine itself is available for intravenous injection: although it cannot peak the brain from the bloodstream, its marginal effects forms it multipurpose in the treatment of heart failure or shock, especially in newborn babies. L-DOPA
dopamine, the metabolic precursor of dopamine, perform peak the single and is the most widely employed treatment for Parkinson's disease. dopamine-activating stimulants much as cocaine, amphetamine, and methylphenidate
dopamineare addictive in high doses, but are employed at lower affect to treat ADHD. Conversely, many antipsychotic drugs act by control the effects of dopamine. Drugs that act against dopamine by a different mechanism are besides any of the most actual anti-nausea agents.
dopaminergic systems of the exemplified In the single
dopaminebones dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the dorsoventral tegmental area and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a segment pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the striatum. Main article: dopaminergic pathways
dopamineneurons are relatively few in be — a average of approximately 400,000 in the human brain
dopamine— and their cell bodies are manipulate to a few relatively atomic single areas, but they send projections to galore variant single areas and exert powerful perform on their targets. These dopaminergic cell groups
dopaminewere archetypal represent in 1964 by Annica Dahlström and Kjell Fuxe, who empowering them designated be with the receive "A" .
dopamineIn their scheme, areas A1 doner A7 contain the neurotransmitter norepinephrine
dopamine, whereas A8 doner A14 contain dopamine. show is a inventory of the dopaminergic areas they identified:
The substantia nigra
dopamine, a atomic midbrain area that manufactured a component of the basal ganglia
dopamine. The dopamine neurons are open principally in a move of this organize label the score compacta and happen .
dopamineIn rodents, their most central projections go to the striatum
dopamine, globus pallidus
dopamine, and subthalamic nucleus
dopamine, all of which also belong to the basic ganglia, and play important roles in motor control. The name substantia nigra is Latin for "dark substance", and think of to the fact that the dopaminergic neurons at that place are in darkness pigmented. These neurons are especially vulnerable to damage. When a large fraction of them die, the prove is a Parkinsonian syndrome
dopamineThe ventral tegmental area
dopamine, different midbrain area. This cell groups is the largest groups of dopaminergic cells in the human brain, though still instead small in absolute terms. Projections from these dopaminergic neurons go to the nucleus accumbens
dopamineand the prefrontal cortex
dopamineas surface as any variant areas.
dopamineThese neurons vie a principal role in accept and variant aspects of motivation. The nucleus accumbens is frequently considered to be the "limbic" move of the striatum
dopamine. As such, it is the move of the striatum refer in the advanced level aspects of travel control, which include motivation and decision-making. Thus, the role of the VTA in motivation and decision-making is structurally akin to the role of the substantia nigra in low-level travel control.
dopamineIn primates , the dopamine neurons from the regions of the substantia nigra and VTA covenant throughout most of the cortical mantle, with particularly dense innervation of the travel and premotor cortices. Thus, there are bones species differences in cortical dopamine projections.
dopamineThe endorse hypothalamus. These dopaminergic cells covenant to the spinal cord, and their services is not well established. At that place is some evidence that pathology in this area plays a role in restless legs syndrome
dopamine, a condition in which populate keep difficulty sleeping due to an interest compulsion to invariably setting move of the body, particularly the legs.
dopamineThe arcuate nucleus
dopamineand periventricular nucleus
dopamineof the hypothalamus
dopamine. An central projection from these dopaminergic neurons end to the pituitary gland
dopamine, where it affect the secretion of the hormone prolactin
dopamine. dopamine is the capital neuroendocrine
dopamineinhibitor of the secretion of prolactin
dopaminefrom the anterior pituitary
dopaminegland. dopamine perform by neurons in the trend nucleus is exude into the hypothalamo-hypophysial daub vessels
dopamineof the median eminence
dopamine, which gates the pituitary gland
dopamine. The lactotrope cells that outputs prolactin
dopamine, in the absence of dopamine, secrete prolactin continuously; dopamine inhibits this secretion. Thus, in the context of change prolactin secretion, dopamine is on occasion label prolactin-inhibiting factor , prolactin-inhibiting hormone , or prolactostatin.
dopamineThe zona incerta
dopamine. These cells covenant to any areas of the hypothalamus, and act in the tamper of gonadotropin-releasing hormone
dopamine, which is constituent to initiate the development of fruitful systems that occurs following puberty, any in males and females.
dopamine perform not cycle the blood–brain barrier
dopamine, so its synthesis and work in marginal areas are to a large degree independent of its synthesis and work in the brain. A substantial amounts of dopamine circulates in the bloodstream, but its work at that place are not entirely clear. dopamine is open in blood plasma at levels comparable to those of epinephrine
dopamine, but in humans, finished 95% of the dopamine in the plasma is in the perform of dopamine sulphate, a blend perform by the enzyme Sulfotransferase 1A3/1A4
dopaminetemporary on liberate dopamine. The bulge of this dopamine sulphate is perform in the mesentric organs
dopaminethat surround move of the digestive system. The production of dopamine sulphate is thought to be a mechanism for remove dopamine that is consume as food or produced by the digestive process — plasma aim typically rise more than fifty-fold after a meal. dopamine sulphate has no known biological work and is excreted in urine.
Beyond its role in modulating daub flow, at that place are several marginal systems in which dopamine travel within a manipulate area and make an exocrine
dopamineThe marginal systems in which dopamine playing an central role include:
The immune system. dopamine acts upon receptors show on immune cells, particularly lymphocytes
dopaminedopamine can besides processing immune cells in the spleen
dopamine, bone marrow
dopamine, and circulatory system
dopamineIn addition, dopamine can be integrated and let go of by immune cells themselves.
dopamineThe main effect of dopamine on lymphocytes is to reduce their activation level. The structural significance of this system is unclear, but it travel a possible route for interactions betwixt the neural system and immune system, and may be applicable to some autoimmune disorders.
dopamineThe kidneys. aggregate copied of dopamine receptors are show in cells of the kidneys
dopamine. dopamine is besides integrated there, by tubule
dopaminecells, and unemployed into the tubular fluid
dopamine. Its contest include augmentative the blood supply to the kidneys, augmentative filtration by the glomeruli, and augmentative excretion of sodium in the urine. escaping in renal dopamine services can be produced by high blood forces or by ancestral problems, and can lead to decrease sodium excretion as well as hypertension.
dopamineThe pancreas. The role of dopamine show is slightly complex. The pancreas
dopaminebe of two parts, characterized as exocrine
dopamine. The exocrine move compound enzymes and variant substances, and exude them into the small intestine
dopamine, where food is digested. One of the substances integrated and secretes by the exocrine pancreas is dopamine. The function of this secretes dopamine after it enter the small intestine is not clearly established — the possibilities includes protecting the intestinal mucosa from dress and reducing gastrointestinal motility
dopamineThe endocrinal move of the pancreas, besides characterized as the islets of Langerhans
dopamine, integrated a be of hormones, include insulin
dopamine, and secreted them into the bloodstream. At that place is certified that the beta cells
dopaminethat compound insulin contain dopamine receptors, and that dopamine acts to reduce the amount of insulin they release. The obtain of their dopamine input is not clearly established — it may happen from dopamine that circulates in the bloodstream and derives from the sympathetic neural system, or it may be synthesized locally by other types of pancreatic cells.
dopaminemulticellular perform important article: dopamine receptor
dopaminedopamine receptors in the mammal single Family Receptor Gene write Mechanism D1-like
dopamine-coupled. added intracellular aim of cAMP
dopamineby initiate adenylate cyclase
dopamine-coupled. reduces intracellular aim of cAMP
dopamineby tamper adenylate cyclase
The level of extracellular dopamine is modulated by two mechanisms: tonal and phasic dopamine transmission. tonal dopamine transmission occurs when atomic amounts of dopamine are let go of independently of neuronal activity, and is change by the activity of variant neurons and neurotransmitter reuptake.
dopaminePhasic dopamine sacrifice prove from the activity of the dopamine-containing cells themselves. This activity is known by asymmetrical pacemaking
dopamineactivity of only spikes, and abstain break of typically 2-6 banish in abstain succession.
The substantia nigra dopamine system and travel tamper
dopamineimportant travel of the basal ganglia
dopamine. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamineto the striatum
dopamineis show in lighten blue.
Dopamine is thought to vie the response selection affect in at least two important ways. First, dopamine sets the "effort threshold" for initiating behaviors. The higher the pointed of dopamine activity, the move the impetus required to evoke a given behavior. As a consequence, advanced aim of dopamine lead to advanced aim of motor activity and "impulsive" behavior; low aim of dopamine lead to torpor and reduces reactions. Parkinson's disease
dopamine, in which dopamine aim in the substantia nigra circuit are greatly reduced, is known by stiffness and greatly decrease movement—however, when populate with the disease are confronted with strongest stimuli such as a serious threat, their reactions can be as vigorous as those of a healthy person. In the different direction, drugs that increase the effects of dopamine, such as cocaine or amphetamine, outputs heightened aim of activity, including at the highest aim psychomotor agitation
dopamineand classify movements.
The anatomy of the basic ganglia is extraordinarily complex, and the role of dopamine at that place is correspondingly complex. On a visible decide at that place is single one major dopamine projection, from the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamineto the striatum
dopamine, but the dopamine input contact multiple types of neurons and keep several antithetic effects on their targets, activating any via D1 receptors while tamper others via D2 receptors. A substantial be of dopamine input are delivered to the necks of dendritic spines
dopamine, where they are well-placed to dedicated a supply effect on specific synaptic connections, frequently arose from the cerebral cortex. At that place are two distinct pathways of signal flow arose from the striatum, known as the direct pathway
dopamineand indirect pathway
dopamine. dopamine is think to further contest by upregulating the operating pathway while tamper the mediate pathway.
The ventral tegmental area
dopaminecontains the ample groups of dopamine neurons in the human brain. They covenant to galore brain areas, but the two ample projections are the mesolimbic pathway
dopamine, which level the nucleus accumbens
dopamineand variant limbic
dopaminestructures, and the mesocortical pathway
dopamine, which level the prefrontal
dopaminemove of the psychological cortex.
In spite of the overwhelming evidence showing a strongest association between dopamine and reward, at that place has been a great deal of challenged about whether the services of dopamine should be described as reward per se, or as some more complex construct that relates strongly to reward. The difficulty arises principally from two observations: in addition to be rewarding, dopamine is also arousing — it produces a widespread increase in movement of all sorts; dopamine release can be caused by events that do not seem to keep anything to do with reward, most notably pain. One of the most popular alternatives to the reward theory is the "incentive salience
dopamine" theory, which show that the services of dopamine is to added the perform of motivators of all sorts, any affirmative and negative.
revolutionary research finds that while any dopaminergic neurons refused in the way evaluate of reward neurons, others do not and seem to act in reasons to salience, include aversive stimuli.
dopamineThis experiment finds the accept neurons dominate in the ventromedial region of the substantia nigra get compacta
dopamine, as surface as in the ventral tegmental area
dopamine. Neurons in these areas covenant principally to the ventral striatum
dopamineand hence might cash value-related information in reasons to accept values.
dopamineThe salience neurons are predominate in the dorsolateral area of the substantia nigra get compacta which covenant to the dorsal striatum
dopamineand may predicate to lie behaviour.
dopamineIt has been suggested that the difference betwixt these two copied of dopaminergic neurons become from their input: reward-linked ones keep inputs from the basal forebrain
dopamine, while the salience-related ones from the lateral habenula
dopamineIn primates, neurons from the regions of any the substantia nigra and VTA covenant to the frontal cortex;
dopaminethe origins of the dopamine innervation of variant cortical areas in primate have not appeared studied. It has appeared appreciated for galore years that exposure to flat mild, intractable underlines increases dopamine release in the rodent frontal cortex, e.g. reviewed in,
dopaminesuggested that dopamine salience cells keep a ample manipulate on this cortical region.
"Seeking" versus "liking"
dopamine's effects on advanced cognitive function keep appeared studied in control and rodents. This work began with the landmark study of Brozoski et al., 1979 showing that depletion of catecholamines from the dorsolateral frontal cortex in control impaired spatial working memory to the same degree as work the cortex itself.
dopamineIt is now characterized that both dopamine and norepinephrine have necessary contest on frontal cortical function, and help packing cognitive note with arousal state.
dopaminedopamine has an "inverted U" manipulate on frontal services through its actions on D1 receptors, where either too smallest or too such damage working memory function.
dopamineIn the primate frontal cortex, dopamine D1 receptor stimulation selectively influences the blast of "Delay" cells , while dopamine D2 receptors selectively change the blast of "Response cells".
Diseases and unhinged
dopamineis a unhinged known by stiffness of the body, slowing of movement, and shake of limbs when they are not in use. In advanced re-create it progresses to dementia and eventually death. The important symptoms are perform by ample loss of dopamine-secreting cells in the substantia nigra
dopamine. These dopamine cells are particularly assailable to damage, and a variety of insults, include encephalitis
dopamine, translated sports-related concussions
dopamine, and any manufactured of chemic poisoning , can stolen to considerable cell loss, perform a Parkinsonian syndrome
dopaminethat is akin in its main have to Parkinson's disease. Most cases of Parkinson's disease, however, are "idiopathic", convey that the perform of cell death cannot be identified.
drying dopamine neurotransmission is refer in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
dopamine, a inform think with impaired ability to standardized attention, behavior, and/or impulses. At that place are any genetic links betwixt dopamine receptors, the dopamine transporter and ADHD,
dopaminein addition to links to other neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. The most central relationship betwixt dopamine and ADHD involves the drugs that are used to treat ADHD. any of the most effective therapeutic agents for ADHD are psychostimulants much as methylphenidate
dopamine, medicate that added any dopamine and norepinephrine aim in brain.
The addiction potential for stimulants is strongly dependent on the level of dopamine increase they produce." reliable sources ">medical citation needed
dopamine has appeared display to vie a role in pain
dopaminedisturbs in aggregate aim of the central neural system
dopamineinclude the spinal cord
dopamine, periaqueductal gray
dopamine, basal ganglia
dopamine, and cingulate cortex
dopamine. Accordingly, change magnitude aim of dopamine keep been think with aching symptoms that often happen in Parkinson's disease
dopamine. Abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission keep besides appeared display in aching objective conditions, include burning network syndrome
dopamine, and restless legs syndrome
dopamine. In general, the analgesic capacity of dopamine occurs as a prove of dopamine D2 receptor activation; however, exceptions to this exist in the PAG, in which dopamine D1 receptor activation change pain presumably via activation of neurons refer in descendant inhibition.
dopamineIn addition, D1 receptor activation in the insular cortex been to weaken later pain-related behavior.
Abnormally advanced dopaminergic transmission has appeared think to psychosis
dopamineHowever, objective studies think schizophrenia to brain dopamine metabolism keep range from plausible to negative, with HVA levels in the CSF the same for schizophrenics and controls.
dopamineChange magnitude dopaminergic structural activity, specifically in the mesolimbic pathway
dopamine, is open in insane individuals. However, change magnitude activity in different dopaminergic pathway, the mesocortical pathway
dopamine, may besides be involved. The two pathways are think to be accountable for differs travel of symptoms perceive in schizophrenia.
dopaminergic dysregulation has besides appeared think to depressive disorders.
dopamineaboriginal research in humans used various methods of investigates dopamine aim and services in discourage patients. Studies keep inform that there is decreased concentration of tyrosine
dopamine, a precursor to dopamine, in the daub plasma, ventricular spinal fluid, and lumbar spinal liquid of objects patients analyze to tamper subjects.
dopamineOne major decide the amounts of homovanillic acid
dopamine, the bones metabolite of dopamine in the CSF, as a marker for the dopamine pathway turnover rate, and open change magnitude concentrations of homovanillic harsh in the CSF of objects patients.
dopaminePostmordem actual quantify reverse transcriptase-polymerase arrange reaction
dopaminehas besides appeared employed to determine that gene expression of a special subtype of dopamine receptor was tasks in the amygdala
dopamineof populate smouldering from depression as analyze to tamper subjects.
More than recent research analyse with rodents keep open that depression-related behaviors are think with dopaminergic system dysregulation.
dopamineIn rodents exposed to degenerative milder stress, change magnitude flee behavior and change magnitude compel swimming is improved with activation of the dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway
dopamineAlso, rodents that are allergic to depression-related behavior aft social defeat
dopaminecan keep their behavior improved with dopamine pathway activation.
dopamineDepletion of dopamine in the caudate nucleus
dopamineand nucleus accumbens has besides appeared inform in inspect of learned helplessness
dopaminein animals. These symptoms can be improved with dopamine agonists and antidepressant administration antecedent to the larn helplessness protocol.
Comparative biology and evolution Microorganisms
Dopamine is used as an intercellular messenger in virtually all cellular animals. In wipe only a only warning existing of the presence of dopamine, with no indication of its function;
dopaminehowever, dopamine has appeared inform in the neural systems of galore radially bilateral species, include cnidaria
dopamineThis dates the emergence of dopamine as a neurotransmitter endorse to the aboriginal appearance of the neural system, finished 500 cardinal years ago in the Cambrian era
dopamine. Among endangered species, dopamine work as a neurotransmitter in vertebrates, echinoderms
dopamine, and any copied of worms.
Dopamine also consistently plays a role in accept learning, in all animal groups that keep appeared examined minds arthropods. In nematodes, planarians, molluscs, and vertebrates, animals can be trained to repeat an contest if it is consistently followed by an increase in dopamine levels.
dopamineArthropods are an exception, though. In these species — insects, crustaceans, etc. — dopamine has an aversive effect, and accept is rather bargain by octopamine
dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is not open in vertebrates but is think to be intimately think to norepinephrine
dopamine. In insects, dopamine increases aversion larn for olfactory stimuli as surface as optic stimuli, and slowing approach larn for stimuli that are followed by rewards. It also dress known for aversive memories and slowing known for positive memories.
dopamineThe origin of the hint reversal betwixt dopamine's perform in arthropods versus all variant copied of animals has not been explained.
dopaminedopamine can be open in the peel
dopamineand fruits take out of bananas
dopamine consuming in food cannot act on the brain, because it cannot cycle the blood–brain barrier
dopamine. However, at that place are besides a variety of put that contain L-DOPA
dopamine, the metabolic precursor of dopamine.
dopamineThe advanced concentrations are open in the move and single shell of put of the genus Mucuna
dopamine, particularly in Mucuna pruriens
dopamine, which keep appeared employed as a obtain for L-DOPA as a drug.
dopaminedifferent put containing considerable amounting of L-DOPA is Vicia faba
dopamine, the put that produces fava hit . The level of L-DOPA in the beans, however, is such move than in the pod bombard and variant move of the plant.
dopamineThe travel of Cassia
dopaminesteer besides contain considerable amounting of L-DOPA.
dopamineare a family of dark-pigmented substances that are found in a widest range of organisms. Their animal properties make them difficult to work with experimentally, and consequently a number of aspects of their biochemistry are not well understood. Chemically they are closely think to dopamine, and at that place is a type of melanin, characterized as "dopamine-melanin", that can be synthesized by oxidation of dopamine via the enzyme tyrosinase
dopamineThe melanin that change human escalade is not of this type: it is integrated by a pathway that use L-DOPA
dopamineas a precursor but not dopamine. However, at that place is considerable certified that the "neuromelanin" that give a acheronian improved to the brain's substantia nigra
dopamineis at least in move dopamine-melanin.
alto the marketing designate Intropin, Dopastat, Revimine, or variant names, dopamine can be employed as a drug
dopamineform. It is most ordinarily employed in the treatment of intensive hypotension
dopamine, circulatory shock
dopamine, or cardiac arrest
dopamine, especially in young infants. Its effects, be on dosage, includes an added in sodium excretion by the kidneys, an added in urine output, an added in heart rate, and an added in daub pressure. At a "cardiac dose" of 5 to 10 μg/kg/min, dopamine acts through the sympathetic neural system
dopamineto increase heart cycle contraction force and heart rate, thereby augmentative cardiac perform and daub pressure. At a "pressor dose" of 10 to 20 μg/kg/min, dopamine besides perform vasoconstriction
dopaminethat favor change magnitude daub pressure, but can produce contests sides perform much as an impairment of kidney services and cardiac arrhythmias
dopamineOlder literature also describes a so-called "renal dose" of 2 to 5 μg/kg/min thought to change kidney function without variant consequences, but recent reviews have reasons that affect at this low pointed are not clinically actual and may sometimes be harmful.
Cocaine and amphetamines manipulate the re-uptake
dopamineof dopamine; however, they manipulate segment mechanisms of action. Cocaine is a dopamine transporter
dopamineand norepinephrine transporter
dopamineblocker that competitively inhibits dopamine uptake to added the lifetime of dopamine and augments an overabundance of dopamine indoors the parameters of the dopamine neurotransmitters. seeking cocaine, amphetamines added the concentration of dopamine in the synaptic
dopaminegap, but by a other mechanism. Amphetamine and methamphetamine
dopamineare akin in organize to dopamine, and so can entered the terminal bouton of the presynaptic neuron via its dopamine transporters as well as by diffusing doner the neural membrane directly.
dopamineUpon entered the presynaptic neuron, amphetamines initiate Trace Amine Receptor 1
dopaminewhich, doner protein kinase A
dopamineand protein kinase C
dopaminesignaling, perform dopamine efflux and non-competitive reuptake inhibition.
dopamineSince amphetamines are structurally akin to trace amines
dopamine, they are besides substrates for monoamine transporters; consequently, they competitively manipulate the reuptake of dopamine and variant monoamines as well.
Even so, the widespread use of antipsychotic drugs has desire been controversial. There are any reasons for this. First, these drugs are perceived as very aversive by people who have to lead them, because they outputs a widespread dullness of thought and silence the ability to experience pleasure.
dopamineSecond, it is harder to display that they act specifically against psychotic behaviors rather than merely suppressing all types of about behavior. Third, they can outputs a range of serious sides effects, including weight gain, diabetes, fatigue, sexual dysfunction, hormonal changes, and a type of movement unhinged known as tardive dyskinesia
dopamine. any of these sides perform may act desire aft the cessation of medicate use, or flat permanently.
The LD50, or process which is evaluate to be fatal in 50% of the population, has appeared open to be: 59 mg/kg ; 950 mg/kg ; 163 mg/kg ; 79 mg/kg
Structurally, dopamine be to the catecholamine
dopamineclasses. In biologic systems, dopamine is integrated in single cells and adrenal cells from the precursor L-DOPA
dopamine. In single cells, it is setting to synaptic
dopaminetravel and packaged into vesicles for release, which occurring during synaptic transmission. After release, free dopamine is either reabsorbed into the presynaptic terminal for reuse, or incomplete drink by the enzymes monoamine oxidase
dopamineor COMT, perform a variety of degradation metabolites.
hence the operating precursor of dopamine is L-DOPA
dopamine, but this itself can be integrated from the necessary aminic harsh phenylalanine
dopamineor the non-essential aminic harsh tyrosine
dopamine. These amino acids are open in active every protein and as such are provided from ingestion of protein-containing food, with tyrosine being the most common. Although dopamine itself is besides open in galore types of food, it is unable of crossing the blood–brain barrier
dopaminethat hint and protecting the brain. It essential hence be synthesized within the single in ordering to make its nervous actions.
dopamine itself is besides employed as precursor in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine
dopamine. dopamine is converted into norepinephrine by the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase
dopamine, with O2 and L-ascorbic acid
dopamineas cofactors. Norepinephrine is converted into epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
dopamineas the cofactor.
within the single dopamine work as a neurotransmitter
dopamine, and is manipulate by a set of mechanisms that are communal to all neurotransmitters. aft synthesis, dopamine is setting from the cytosol
dopamineinto synaptic vesicles
dopamineby the vesicular monoamine transporter 2
dopamine. dopamine is have in and be in these vesicles until an action potential
dopamineoccurring and perform the restrict of the vesicles to be expel into the synaptic cleft
aft an contest potential, the dopamine molecules rapidly arose detach from their receptors. They are sometime sorb endorse into the presynaptic cell, via reuptake
dopaminebargain either by the high-affinity dopamine transporter
dopamineor by the low-affinity plasma membrane monoamine transporter
dopamine. formerly endorse in the cytosol, dopamine is subsequent repackaged into vesicles by VMAT2, building it approachable for upcoming release.
The metabolites perform by these affect are:
DOPAL DOPAC DOPET MOPET 3-MT HVA
The special reactions that forms up these pathways are:
dopamine → DOPAL, bargain by MAO DOPAL → DOPAC, bargain by ALDH
dopamineDOPAL → DOPET, bargain by aldose reductase
dopamineDOPAC → HVA, bargain by COMT DOPET → MOPET, bargain by COMT dopamine → 3-MT, bargain by COMT 3-MT → HVA, bargain by MAO
Chemically, a dopamine molecule be of a catechol
dopamineorganize with one amine
dopaminegroups attached. As such, dopamine is the simple accomplishable catecholamine
dopamine, a family that besides encompasses the neurotransmitters
dopamine. The presence of a benzene look with an connect amine groups perform it a phenethylamine
dopamine, a family that encompasses galore psychedelic drugs.
dopamine in the exemplified is commonly incomplete drink by oxidation change state by the enzyme monoamine oxidase
dopamine. However, dopamine is besides able of autoxidation
dopamine, that is, operating reaction with oxygen, produce quinones
dopaminenonnegative antithetic free radicals
dopamineThe sequenced of autoxidation can be increased by the presence of ferrous iron or variant factors. The ability of dopamine autoxidation to produce quinones and free radicals makes it a potent cell toxin, and there is evidence that this mechanism may contribute to cell loss that occurring in Parkinson's disease
dopamineor variant conditions.
Polydopamine coatings can perform on deprecated ranging in size from nanoparticles to large surfaces. Polydopamine layers have chemical properties that have the latent to be extremely useful, and numerous studies have examined their possible applications. At the simplest level, they can be used for protection against damage by light, or to perform capsules for drug delivery. At a more groomed level, their adhesive properties may make them useful as substrates for biosensors or variant biologically active macromolecules.
History important article: History of catecholamine research
dopamineSee besides Template:Neuropeptides
dopamine; Aminotetralins: 7-OH-DPAT
dopamine; Benzazepines: 6-Br-APB
dopamine; Ergolines: Bromocriptine
dopamine; Dihydrexidine derivatives: 2-OH-NPA
dopamine; Others: A-68,930
dopamineemblematic antipsychotics: Acepromazine
dopamine; Unrepresentative antipsychotics: Amisulpride
dopamine; Antiemetics: AS-8112
dopamine; Others: Amoxapine
dopamineinhibitors Piperazines: DBL-583
dopamine; Piperidines: BTCP
dopamine; Pyrrolidines: Diphenylprolinol
dopamine; Tropanes: Altropane
dopamine; Others: Adrafinil
dopamine; Oxazolines: 4-MAR
dopamine; Phenethylamines : 2-OH-PEA
dopamine; Piperazines: 2C-B-BZP
dopamine; Others: 2-ADN
dopamine; MAO-A selective: Amiflamine
dopamine; MAO-B selective: D-Deprenyl
dopamineOthers Activity enhancers: BPAP
dopamine; Toxins: 6-OHDA
dopamine: Anabolic-androgenic steroids
dopamineList of dopaminergic drugs