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Mating system

Posted by on March 22, 2014
A mating system is a way in which a group is structured in relation to sexual behaviour. The precise meaning depends upon the context. With respect to higher animals, the term describes which males mate with which females, under which circumstances; recognised animal mating systems include monogamy
mating system
, polygamy
mating system
and promiscuity
mating system
. In plants, the titled think of to the degree and circumstances of outcrossing
mating system
. In hominid sociobiology
mating system
, the label keep appeared increase to includes the formation of relationships much as marriage
mating system
.
In put
A be of imitate keep appeared employed to outlining the parameters of put united systems. The basal model is the mixed united model
mating system
, which is basing on the assumption that all fertilisation is either self-fertilisation or totally haphazard cross-fertilisation. More than complex imitate change this assumption; for example, the effective selfing model
mating system
recognises that mating may be more communal betwixt happen of intimately think put that betwixt happen of distantly think plants.
mating system

In animals important article: Animal sexual behaviour#mating systems
mating system
See also: Polygyny threshold model
mating system
 and Monogamous happen in animals
mating system
Animal sexual behaviour
mating system
Mammals
mating system
Rut
mating system
Lordosis behavior
mating system
Homosexual behavior
mating system
Horse
mating system
Kangaroo
mating system
Fossa
mating system
Northern short-tailed shrew
mating system
Pinnipedia
mating system
Walrus
mating system
Canidae
mating system
Gray wolf
mating system
Golden jackal
mating system
Domestic dog
mating system
Red fox
mating system
Hyena
mating system
Spotted hyena
mating system
Aardwolf
mating system
Brown hyena
mating system
Striped hyena
mating system
Elephant
mating system
Asian
mating system
Primates Human
mating system
Bonobo
mating system
Gorilla
mating system
Olive baboon
mating system
Mandrill
mating system
Ringtailed lemur
mating system
Felidae Lion
mating system
Tiger
mating system
Domestic cat
mating system
Dolphin
mating system
Bottlenose dolphin
mating system
Rhinoceros White rhinoceros
mating system
Black rhinoceros
mating system
Indian rhinoceros
mating system
Sumatran rhinoceros
mating system
Hippopotamus
mating system
Birds
mating system
Homosexual behavior
mating system
Breeding
mating system
Seabird perform behavior
mating system
Sexual selection in birds
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v
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t
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e
mating system

These mating relationships may or may not be think with societal relationships, in which the sexual partners stay together to become parenting partners. As the alternative term "pair bonding" implies, this is usual in monogamy. In many polyandrous systems, the males and the egg-producing stay together to rearing the young. In polygynous systems where the number of females happen with each male is low and the male will frequently stay with one egg-producing to help rearing the young, while the other females rearing their youthful on their own. In polygynandry, each of the males may assist one female; if all adults help rearing all the young, the system is more usually called "communal breeding
mating system
". In extremely polygamous systems, and in indiscriminate systems, paternal mother of youthful is rare, or at that place may be no parental mother at all.
analyze to variant vertebrates
mating system
, where a species normally has a only united system, hominid demonstrates ample variety. Humans besides differ by having ceremonial marriages
mating system
which in many cultures refer negotiation and arrangement between elder relatives. Regarding sexual dimorphism , humans falls in the intermediate group with medium sex differences in body size but with relatively large testes. This tell relatively frequent sperm competition which is supported by reports of extrapair paternity of 2-22% in socially monogamous and polygamous human societies. One estimate is that 83% of human societies are polygynous, 0.05% are polyandrous, and the rest are monogamous. Even the decide group may at least in part be genetically polygynous.
mating system

Virtually all the label employed to outlining physical united systems be adopting from social anthropology
mating system
, where they had appeared create by mental act to outlining systems of marriage
mating system
. This shows that human sexual behavior is unusually flexible since, in most animal species, one mating system dominates. While there are close analogies between animal mating systems and human marriage institutions, these analogies should not be pressed too far, because in human societies, marriages typically have to be recognized by the entire social group in some way, and there is no equivalent process in animal societies. The temptation to draw conclusions about what is "natural" for human sexual behavior from observations of animal mating systems should be resisted: a socio-biologist observing the kinds of behavior shown by humans in any other species would conclude that all known mating systems were natural for that species, depending on the circumstances or on individual differences.

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